Parts Of A Computer And Their Use, Detail Guide

A computer is the machine used for carrying out a sequence of arithmetic or logical operations. Computers can be programmed to perform many different functions, such as playing games, surfing the internet and performing scientific computations.

A “parts of a computer and their functions pdf” is a detailed guide on how to use parts of a computer. The document is an easy-to-read, easy-to-understand manual that gives users a basic understanding of the different parts of a computer.

The computer is without a doubt one of the most sophisticated and complex technologies ever devised by humanity. A computer is made up of many different pieces that are put together to create a powerful machine that can execute some of the most complex jobs in human history.

When we think of computer components, we generally think of the monitor, CPU, keyboard, and mouse since these are the ones we see all of the time. However, there are several more components of a computer that are vital to its operation. We will not only cover the pieces of a computer in this post, but also how they work. You will know all there is to know about computer components and functions by the conclusion of this essay. So let’s get started.

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Basic Parts, Input Devices, and Output Devices are the four basic categories in which a computer’s components are classified. We’ll take a closer look at each of these computer components and explore their functions.

Table of Contents

A Computer’s Basic Components

The following is a list of all of the most common and basic PC hardware components and accessories.

CPU Case

The computer case is a box-shaped framework that is used to physically attach and house all of the computer’s real hardware components.

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Yes, a laptop or tablet’s outside chassis is also called a case, although they aren’t sold separately.

The main aim of a computer case is to protect sensitive components such as the motherboard, CPU, and RAM from external influences such as dust, air, and water.

CPU Case

A computer casing may also be used to keep the components cool. Another benefit of adopting a computer casing is that it allows for better ventilation over the PC components. The computer casing contains specific vents that enable part of the fan air (hot air) to escape while the remainder is utilized to cool the PC components.

It also helps to decrease the noise of computer elements such as CPU fans, which may be reduced by placing them in a closed compartment inside the case.

Many people mistake a computer casing for a CPU, however the CPU is located within the case.

There are many distinct kinds of computer cases, each with its own size and construction.

The following is a list of computer case sizes (also known as form factor):

  • ATX motherboards are the industry standard.
  • Support for micro-ATX motherboards is a minor factor.
  • Mini-ITX motherboards are compatible.
  • ATX and XL-ATX motherboards enable larger form factors.

PSU stands for power supply unit.

power Supply Unit

The Electricity Supply Unit, or PSU, is a device that supplies power to the mains. The Power Supply Unit, sometimes known as the PSU, is responsible for supplying power to the PC’s primary components. A power supply unit (PSU) transforms the AC mains supply from the wall socket to direct current (DC) and adjusts the DC output voltage to the tight tolerances needed by computer systems.

What factors should I consider while selecting a power supply unit?

Before purchasing a power supply, double-check that it matches the form factor of your computer case and motherboard. The wattage is the second factor to think about.

To begin, ensure that the power supply unit you choose is compatible with the form factor of your server case and motherboard. This will confirm that it is compatible with your server. The greater the wattage rating, the more power your computer can get from the PSU.

To begin, figure out how much electricity your computer components need to function properly. If your PC’s hardware demands 600V, for example, a 1000 -1200V power supply unit would be excellent. At 50% load, the majority of the PSUs have the greatest efficiency. Furthermore, the extra power enables you to expand your computer with additional components if necessary.



A motherboard is the heart of a computer, and it is directly linked to practically all of the computer’s components. It connects the CPU, RAM, graphics card, drives, power supply, and other components.

The motherboard’s job is to connect all of the computer’s components so that they may communicate and work together. It’s also in charge of distributing electricity to all of the computer’s components.

Motherboards are available in a variety of sizes:

  • Standard-ATX
  • Mini-ITX
  • Nano-ITX
  • Micro-ATX
  • Pico-ITX
  • XL-ATX



A CPU is the brain of the computer that processes all the data, much as a motherboard is the heart of a computer. The CPU is responsible for performing computations, operations, and program execution. The CPU reads all of the data from the RAM and processes it in order to complete the tasks that the computer requires.

RAM stands for Random Access Memory.


RAM, or random access memory, is the short-term data storage of your computer. The RAM is also volatile, which means that when the computer is shut off, all of the data contained in it is lost. It saves the data that your computer is currently working with so that it may be retrieved quickly. The speed of the RAM is a major impact in the system’s overall performance, therefore the more applications you run, the more RAM you’ll require.

Hard Disk Drive (HDD)

Hard Disk

A hard drive is a mechanical device that holds all of the information on a computer. It’s commonly mounted inside in a PC case, directly connected to the motherboard’s disk controller. It consists of one or more disk platters enclosed in an airtight protective container. A magnetic head glides swiftly across the platters as they spin, writing or reading data on them.

Extra Information: A SATA, ATA, and SCSI cable connects the HDD drive to the motherboard. It is connected to the computer’s power supply. It may be used as a boot drive to execute the operating system in addition to storing the user’s personal data.

SSD (solid-state drive) (SSD)

SSD drive

An SSD (solid-state drive) is a new generation of computer storage devices. A solid-state drive (SSD) is similar to a traditional hard drive, except it lacks a disk and no moving elements. A solid-state drive (SSD) is made up of a bank of flash memory that can store a fair quantity of information or data, making it considerably quicker than a standard mechanical hard drive.

A solid-state drive (SSD) is a high-performance drive. It is speedier than an HDD and is less susceptible to harm when dropped.

Computer Graphics Card

Graphics Card

A graphics card is a piece of hardware that is used to boost a system’s video memory and improve its display quality. The Graphics Card (GPU) increases the computer’s power and allows it to do more high-level tasks.

The graphics card, often known as a video card, is a device that relieves the main CPU of all visual-related chores. This significantly improves overall computer performance.

When it comes to gaming and video editing, the GPU is crucial. To begin, every video game requires graphics memory, which varies depending on the game.

Graphics Cards Come in a Variety of Styles:

Integrated GPU: The integrated GPU is a limited graphic memory that comes with the latest generation CPU. The integrated graphics will enough for the majority of users that utilize a computer for routine activities such as online browsing, generating or reading documents, or watching movies.

Discrete (External) GPU: An external GPU that is inserted as an auxiliary component on the motherboard. An additional graphics card is frequently required for users venturing into gaming and video editing to speed up the picture processing time.

Card with Bluetooth

A Bluetooth Card, as the name implies, is a computer card that allows you to connect your computer to your smartphone, wireless speakers, and even other computers through Bluetooth communication. 

Wireless LAN or Network Card

WiFi card

WiFi is critical for a computer since it enables it to connect to the internet. A WiFI card enables your PC to detect and link with accessible WiFi signals.

Basic Input and Output Components



A monitor is perhaps the most crucial of all the output devices accessible to us, primarily since it is responsible for all of the output pictures. Once the computer has completed the work successfully, the monitor’s function is to show it for the user to utilize. The monitor itself displays whatever you’re reading right now, as well as all the words, videos, photos, and GIFs you view.

In recent years, monitor technology has advanced dramatically, with bulky displays being replaced with LED monitors that take up less space and provide superior visual performance and power efficiency.



The keyboard is the most crucial of all input devices, since it is used to send data, messages, symbols, and other information to the computer. There is no one-size-fits-all keyboard layout that is universally utilized. The most prevalent form of keyboard, however, is one that has a QWERTY layout. There are, however, a few unusual keyboards on the market. Furthermore, many keyboards have a distinct number pad, while others do not.



The cursor, a triangular-shaped pointing component that floats on your device’s screen, is something we’re all acquainted with. This pointer is controlled by a mouse or, on laptops, a touchpad, and it is used to manipulate the different components displayed on your computer screen, such as apps and menus.

Mouses have come a long way over the years, and there are now several types of mice for varied purposes. The mouse with two buttons and a scroll wheel is the most popular. Then there are gaming mice with a plethora of buttons, each of which has a specific purpose during games.

Scanner and printer

Printer and Scanner

The information you desire is printed on a tangible piece of paper by a printer. A printer is often used to print text, although it may also print photos and other things. A scanner, on the other hand, is a device that aids in the scanning of a document or a piece of paper, which may subsequently be shared with other organizations in a variety of ways.



A web camera is a gadget that connects to your computer and allows you to shoot images and movies. Working professionals and students who need to attend virtual meetings would benefit greatly from a web camera. Most laptops nowadays come with a built-in web camera.


A microphone is a gadget that allows you to capture sounds so that you may interact with people during phone conversations or meetings. Most laptops nowadays come with an integrated microphone that may be used to trigger voice commands on your device.

Tablet PC with Graphics

Graphics Tablet

During the lockout, when online classrooms grew more popular, the Graphics Tablet gained a lot of traction. Teachers and artists are the primary users of these graphic tablets, since they must either sketch architecture or produce art with remarkable accuracy.



A trackball is similar to a mouse in that both are used to manipulate the pointer on a computer screen. We do not, however, move the trackball itself, unlike the mouse. Instead, we control the cursor by moving the ball.



Operating a computer without speakers is typically not pleasant since you won’t be able to hear any of the sounds that the machine makes. A speaker transforms electrical impulses into audible sounds for people. Speakers are often used to play music tracks and hear audio while watching films, movies, or doing other tasks.

Printer (3D)

3D Printer

A 3D Printer is a miracle of the twenty-first century, and it is used to create real-life items out of plastic filaments. 3D printers can manufacture everything from real-life action figurines to machine weapons, among other things.



A projector is a device that functions similarly to a monitor and shows graphics on a screen of your choosing. Professionals often utilize a projector during presentations when they must deliver their ideas in front of a big group of people.

Earbuds and Headphones

headphones and Earphones

Headphones and Earphones are comparable to Speakers, however they vary significantly. When an audio track is played over a speaker, it may be heard by a large number of people unless the level is extremely low. The music played on a headset or earphones, on the other hand, can only be heard by the person wearing them, no matter how loud the level is.

Joystick, Gamepad, and Steering Wheel


Gamepads, joysticks, and steering wheels are all useful gaming accessories. Although a keyboard and mouse will suffice for your gaming requirements, these items will enhance your gaming experience.


As you can see, we attempted to describe the pieces of a computer and how they work in this post. If you have any questions regarding any of these computer components or how they work, please let us know and we will gladly assist you.

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The “4 main parts of a computer” are the CPU, RAM, Hard drive, and motherboard. These are the four most important parts of a computer. The motherboard is where all the other components plug into. It’s also responsible for transferring data between the different parts of the computer.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the 10 parts of computer and their functions?

A: The 10 parts of a computer are the CPU, motherboard, RAM, power supply unit (PSU), HDD or SSD drive.

What are the 12 parts of computer?

A: A computer is a general purpose information processing device that has the capability of accepting data, holding and processing it according to instructions, and supplying results of its operations. These include machines such as desktop computers, laptops, tablets or smartphones.

What are the 20 parts of the computer?

A: The computer has many parts that make it work. Most common are the motherboard, power supply, ram, processor (CPU), graphics card (GPU).

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